Oleaceae Plants of the Olive Family If you live in the northern states then you may know the lilac already. [23], The following taxonomic synopsis of the Solanaceae, including subfamilies, tribes and genera, is based on the most recent molecular phylogenetics studies of the family:[2][3][24][25], This subfamily is characterised by the presence of pericyclic fibres, an androecium with four or five stamens, frequently didynamous. The Solanaceae include a number of commonly collected or cultivated species. In: Hawkes JG, Lester RN, Nee M, Estrada N (eds) Solanaceae III – taxonomy, chemistry, evolution. Solanine and Chaconine. The gynoecium is bicarpelar (rarely three- or five-locular) with a superior ovary and two locules, which may be secondarily divided by false septa, as is the case for Nicandreae and Datureae. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Annual plants with pericyclic fibres, their flowers are zygomorphic, the androecium has four didynamous stamens or three staminodes; the embryo is straight and short. Some other important members of Solanaceae include a number of ornamental plants such as Petunia, Browallia, and Lycianthes, and sources of psychoactive alkaloids, Datura, Mandragora (mandrake), and Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade). The leaves are generally petiolate or subsessile, rarely sessile. examined the evolutionary history and species diversity of suboscine birds in the tropics (see the Perspective by Morlon). Nicotiana contains, among other species, tobacco. Although natural parthenocarpic varieties are useful for breeding Solanaceae plants, their use has been limited, and little is known about their molecular and biochemical mechanisms. Each locule has one to 50 ovules that are anatropous or hemianatropous with axillar placentation. One of the aspects of the solanaceas’ genomics is an international project that is trying to understand how the same collection of genes and proteins can give rise to a group of organisms that are so morphologically and ecologically different. Schizanthus is a somewhat atypical genus among the Solanaceae due to its strongly zygomorphic flowers and basic chromosome number. As you will see below, even though nightshade fruits contain glycoalkaloids, they either contain lower amounts of these potentially toxic compounds or contain gentler versions of them. In the latter case, there is usually either one staminode (Salpiglossis) or three (Schizanthus). In general, the Solanaceae have a gynoecium (the female part of the flower) formed of two carpels. The … Liliaceae, the lily family of the flowering plant order Liliales, with 16 genera and 635 species of herbs and shrubs, native primarily to temperate and subtropical regions. Front Plant Sci 4, No. [24][25] The great diversity of flower types within Schizanthus has been the product of the species’ adaptation to the different types of pollinators that existed in the Mediterranean, high alpine, and desert ecosystems then present in Chile and adjacent areas of Argentina.[31]. The leaves have reticulated venation and lack a basal meristem. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyll of the leaf. It is also related to Lamiaceae and Acanthaceae but differs from them due to alternate phyllotaxy, form of corolla, nature of ovary and characters of fruits. The Solanaceae family of vegetables include potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, capsicum and chillies. Some authors suggest their molecular data indicate the monotypic genera Tsoala Bosser & D'Arcy should be included in this subfamily, endemic to Madagascar, and Metternichia to the southeast of Brazil. Solanaceae occupy a great number of different ecosystems, from deserts to rainforests, and are often found in the secondary vegetation that colonizes disturbed areas. [citation needed] Solanaceae are known for having a diverse range of alkaloids. Affinities 5. Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. Among the most important of those & Academic Press., London. The finding has pushed back the earliest appearance of the plant family Solanaceae. Hunziker, Armando T. 2001. Extractives and their physically modified derivatives such as tinctures, concretes, absolutes, essential oils, oleoresins, terpenes, terpene-free fractions, distillates, residues, etc., obtained from Capsicum annuum annuum, longumqd group, cayenne, Solanaceae. The family has a worldwide distribution, being present on all continents except Antarctica. [46][47] Many other species, in particular those that produce alkaloids, are used in pharmacology and medicine (Nicotiana, Hyoscyamus, and Datura). Solanáceas, The Value of Growing Petchoa SuperCal®. Phytophagous arthropods associated with, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Phylogeny and provisional classification of the Solanaceae based on chloroplast DNA", "52 Million-Year-Old Tomatillo Fossils Rewrite Veggie History", "Molecular cloning of hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, from cultured roots of, "Determination of the Nicotine Content of Various Edible Nightshades (Solanaceae) and Their Products and Estimation of the Associated Dietary Nicotine Intake", "Nicotine Analysis in Several Non-Tobacco Plant Materials", "Dyssochroma viridiflorum (Solanaceae): A Reproductively Bat-dependent Epiphyte from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil", "A cladistic study on the American species of, "Phylogenetics of the florally diverse Andean clade Iochrominae (Solanaceae)", Article in English, with a summary in Portuguese, Arboles ornamentales cultivados en España. The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. Among the most important of those are potato ( Solanum tuberosum ); eggplant ( S. melongena ); tomato ( S. lycopersicum ); peppers (various Capsicum species); tobacco ( Nicotiana … The most economically important genus of the family[citation needed] is Solanum, which contains the potato (S. tuberosum, in fact, another common name of the family is the "potato family"), the tomato (S. lycopersicum), and the eggplant or aubergine (S. melongena). The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word solanum, referring to nightshades (especially Solanum nigrum), "probably from sol, 'sun', + -anum, neuter of -anus."[6]. The Solanaceae is a family of flowering plants, many of which are edible, while others are considered poisonous. [4] As tomatillos likely developed later than other nightshades, this may mean that the Solanaceae may have first developed during the Mesozoic Era.[5]. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Nightshade vegetables belong to the family of plants with the Latin name Solanaceae.Potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants are all common nightshades. The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. They are frequently inodorous, but some are aromatic or fetid. Polemoniaceae Plants of the Phlox Family Members of the Phlox family are usually small plants with narrow, alternate or opposite leaves. The flowers are generally hermaphrodites, although some are monoecious, andromonoecious, or dioecious species (such as some Solanum or Symonanthus). It consists of terrestrial trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs that are recognizable by simple, opposite leaves with interpetiolar stipules and sympetalous actinomorphic flowers. Some people have a sensitivity to nightshade vegetables and fruits, such as eggplant and goji berries, which means they are unable to digest them fully. Morphological and molecular data suggest Schizanthus is a sister genus to the other Solanaceae and diverged early from the rest, probably in the late Cretaceous or in the early Cenozoic, 50 million years ago. Introduction Polemoniaceae, the phlox family, includes about 400 species of herbs, shrubs, small trees, and vines. The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae, especially the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Their importance lies in the fact that they can host pathogens or diseases of the cultivated plants, therefore their presence increases the loss of yield or the quality of the harvested product. In general, plants in this family are of tropical and temperate distribution. Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. The name may come from a perceived resemblance of certain solanaceous flowers to the sun and its rays. The following genera have not yet been placed in any of the recognized subfamilies within the solanaceas (incertae sedis). [48][49], "Nightshade" redirects here. The Solanaceae contain 98 genera and some 2,700 species. Molecular phylogenetics indicates that Petunioideae is the sister clade of the subfamilies with chromosome number x=12 (Solanoideae and Nicotianoideae). For other uses, see, Family of flowering plants that includes tomatoes, potatoes and tobacco, Balken, J.A. The capsules are normally septicidal or rarely loculicidal or valvate. Solanaceous vegetables are affected by a range of viral diseases. The embryo is curved. In terms of fruit type, the Schizanthoidae retain the plesiomorphic fruit form of the family Solanaceae, capsules, which rely on an anemochorous, abiotic form of dispersal. The development of the embryo sack can be the same as for Polygonum or Allium species. The plants that contain these substances have been used for centuries as poisons. Many species contain toxic alkaloids. Members of the family usually have six-segmented flowers and The corolla usually has five petals that are also joined together forming a tube. The first objective of this project was to sequence the genome of the tomato. A.R.G. Imagines de various species of Solanaceae, -- Note the reference to higher cholesterol levels (and consequent Vitamin D3 levels) in family, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Solanaceae&oldid=998399940, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2015, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, Articles with dead external links from May 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Articles needing additional references from April 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Articles with dead external links from November 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Estimated number of species in the family, The number of carpels that form the gynoecium. The number of ovules per locule also varies from a few (two pairs in each locule in Grabowskia, one pair in each locule in Lycium) and very occasionally only one ovule is in each locule as for example in Melananthus. The name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, "the nightshade plant". The foliar lamina can be either simple or compound, and the latter can be either pinnatifid or ternate. The fruit can be a berry as in the case of the tomato or wolfberry a dehiscent capsule as in Datura, or a drupe. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The sequencing of the mitochondrial genome was carried out in Argentina and the chloroplast genome was sequenced in the European Union. Goetzeaceae Airy Shaw is considered as a synonym of this subfamily.[26]. Editorial ACME S.A.C.I., Buenos Aires. The bella… Zeiger, E. 1998. The ovules are generally inverted, folded sharply backwards (anatropous), but some genera have ovules that are rotated at right angles to their stalk (campilotropous) as in Phrodus, Grabowskia or Vassobia), or are partially inverted (hemitropous as in Cestrum, Capsicum, Schizanthus and Lycium). Another important genus, Capsicum, produces both chili peppers and bell peppers. This family Scrophulariaceae is undoubtedly very much allied to Solanaceae but is separated by zygomorphic corolla, reduction in number of stamens and medianly placed carpels. [2] The Solanaceae consists of about 98 genera and some 2,700 species,[3] with a great diversity of habitats, morphology and ecology. The Schizanthoideae include annual and biennial plants with tropane alkaloids, without pericyclic fibres, with characteristic hair and pollen grains. The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are a family of flowering plants that ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, lianas, epiphytes, shrubs, and trees, and includes a number of agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices, weeds, and ornamentals. The stamens are epipetalous and are typically present in multiples of four or five, most commonly four or eight. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. Family Solanaceae – Potato family Contains 42 Genera and 323 accepted taxa overall Down one level Genus Acnistus Schott – acnistus P Genus Atropa L. – belladonna P Genus Bouchetia Dunal – … The leaves are generally alternate or alternate to opposed (that is, alternate at the base of the plant and opposed towards the inflorescence). The cultivated species Solanum tuberosum has 4 × 12 = 48 chromosomes. Other shrub species that are grown for their attractive flowers are Lycianthes rantonnetii (Blue Potato Bush or Paraguay Nightshade) with violet-blue flowers and Nicotiana glauca ("Tree Tobacco") Other solanaceous species and genera that are grown as ornamentals are the petunia (Petunia × hybrida), Lycium, Solanum, Cestrum, Calibrachoa × hybrida and Solandra. Subtribe Solandrinae, a monotypical subtribe, differs from Juanulloinae in that its embryos have incumbent cotyledons and semi-inferior ovaries. The calyx is gamosepalous (as the sepals are joined together forming a tube), with the (4)5(6) segments equal, it has five lobes, with the lobes shorter than the tube, it is persistent and often accrescent. After feeding on the foliage, the larvae will then delve down and feed on the tubers and roots of the plant. Ornamental News Oct 25 2012, International Tomato Sequencing Project Home. [1] They are commonly known as thornapples or jimsonweeds but are also known as devil's trumpets [2] (not to be confused with angel's trumpets, which … Solanaceae belongs to that group of families, which are included in almost all angiosperm classifications indicating naturalness of the family. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, and some are highly toxic, but many—including tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, bell and chili peppers—are used as food. Subtribe Salpichroinae, this is a subtribe of Physaleae that includes 16 American species distributed in 1 genera: Subtribe Withaninae, is a subtribe of Physaleae with a broad distribution, including 9 genera: Dimitri, M. 1987. It consists of 13 genera and some 160 species distributed throughout Central and South America. Virginia Commonwealth University. The stamen’s filament can be filliform or flat. So chromosomes 1 and 10 were sequenced in the United States, 3 and 11 in China, 2 in Korea, 4 in Britain, 5 in India, 7 in France, 8 in Japan, 9 in Spain and 12 in Italy. The family belongs to the order Solanales, in the asterid group and class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons). Certain species are widely known for their medicinal uses, their psychotropic effects, or for being poisonous. Evans, W.C. 1979. They are found in plants such as henbane (Hyoscyamus albus), belladonna (Atropa belladonna), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), mandrake (Mandragora autumnalis), tobacco, and others. Corrections? The embryo sack’s nuclear poles become fused before fertilization. Capsules are characteristic of the subfamilies Cestroideae (with the exception of Cestrum) and Schizanthoideae, the tribes Salpiglossoideae and Anthocercidoideae, and the genus Datura. Here, we report a parthenocarpic eggplant mutant, pad-1 , which accumulates high levels of auxin in the ovaries. It is estimated that Solanaceae group of plants include 98 genera and 2700 species. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, Masis, C. & Madrigal, R. 1994. COLE TCH (2020) SOLANACEAE PHYLOGENY POSTER • hypothetical tree based on molecular phylogenetic data • branch lengths deliberate, not … As far as humans are concerned, these alkaloids can be desirable, toxic, or both, though they presumably evolved because they reduce the tendency of animals to eat the plants. The gynoecium is located in an oblique position relative to the flower’s median plane. Called the nightshade family or the potato family, Solanaceae has more than 90 genera and nearly 3,000 species distributed throughout the world. They are adapted to arid environments, especially in the western states. It includes four genera and five species distributed throughout the Greater Antilles. Sneden, A. Characters of Malvaceae: Stellate hairs on the young parts, mucilaginous juice present, leaves alternate, stipulate, multicostate reticulate; inflorescence solitary or cyme; flower actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, … Subtribe Juanulloinae consists 10 genera of trees and epiphytic shrubs with a neotropical distribution . The flowers are usually actinomorphic, slightly zygomorphic, or markedly zygomorphic (for example, in flowers with a bilabial corolla in Schizanthus species). Updates? The Cestreae tribe is unusual because it includes taxa with long chromosomes (from 7.21 to 11.511 µm in length), when the rest of the family generally possesses short chromosomes (for example between 1.5 and 3.52 µm in the Nicotianoideae), This subfamily is characterized by the presence of drupes as fruit and seeds with curved embryos and large fleshy cotyledons. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). At least one species of Solanum is known as the "sunberry". Characters of Malvaceae 2. The term "tropane" comes from a genus in which they are found, Atropa (the belladonna genus). Some Capsicum species have 2 × 12 = 24 chromosomes, while others have 26 chromosomes. L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The eight most important genera contain more than 60% of the species, as shown in the table below. They can have a basal or terminal group of leaves or neither of these types. Drupes are typical of the Lycieae tribe and in Iochrominae.[11]. Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. The amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae) contains 73 genera and at least 1,600 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is present in Schizanthoidae due both to the genetic constraints of early divergence (see below) as well as Schizanthus evolution and presence in open habitats. Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. Petals 5, gamopetalous, bilabiate, (2/3) upper lip of 2 lobes and lower of 3 lobes, imbricate, purple and showy. Flower shapes are typically rotate (wheel-shaped, spreading in one plane, with a short tube) or tubular (elongated cylindrical tube), campanulated or funnel-shaped. D’Arcy WG (1991) The Solanaceae since 1976, with a review of its biogeography. They can be annuals, biennials, or perennials, upright or decumbent. They usually have a hypogynous disk. Most of the economically important genera are contained in the subfamily Solanoideae, with the exceptions of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotianoideae) and petunia (Petunia × hybrida, Petunioideae). Benthamiella, Combera, and Pantacantha form a clade that can be categorized as a tribe (Benthamielleae) that should be in the subfamily Goetzeoideae. Of these names, 30 are recorded as invalid 37 are recorded as illegitimate A further 1 name records indicate where names have been misapplied. It includes four genera and some 30 species distributed throughout South America. Brassicaceae species are characterized by four 136, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 05:53. Economic Importance 4. The three antipodes are usually ephemeral or persistent as in the case of Atropa. The name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, "the nightshade plant". Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell, Liechtenstein. The role of the environment in the origin of new species has long been debated. Pollination is entomophilous. Version: 1 June 2007. Enciclopedia Argentina de Agricultura y Jardinería. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The flowers are medium-sized, fragrant (Nicotiana), fetid (Anthocercis), or inodorous. The leaves can be herbaceous, leathery, or transformed into spines. Examples of this diversity include:[9][10]. Despite this immense richness of species, they are not uniformly distributed between the genera. Many solanaceas are important weeds in various parts of the world. The tribe Hyoscyameae has pyxidia. However, some species occur in which the numbers are not the same due to the existence of false septa (internal walls that subdivide each locule), such as in Datura and some members of the Lycieae (the genera Grabowskia and Vassobia). Centers of diversity also occur in Australia and Africa. The androecium is formed of four stamens (rarely five), usually with two different lengths. Commonly known as the mustard family, Brassicaceae contains some 338 genera and more than 3,700 species of flowering plants distributed throughout the world. Symp. However, Melananthus has a monocarpelar gynoecium, there are three or four carpels in Capsicum, three to five in Nicandra, some species of Jaborosa and Trianaea and four carpels in Iochroma umbellatum. Distribution of Malvaceae 3. Solanaceae belongs to that group of families, which are included in almost all angiosperm classifications indicating naturalness of the family. An example of this can be seen with Acnistus arborescens and Browalia americana that host thrips, which cause damage to associated cultivated plants,[42] and certain species of Datura that play host to various types of virus that are later transmitted to cultivated solanaceas. The flowers are zygomorphic. Tomo I. Descripción de plantas cultivadas. The fruits of the great majority of the Solanaceae are berries or capsules (including pyxidia) and less often drupes. The confidence with which the status of the 5,109 species names recorded in The Plant List for the family Polygonaceae, are assigned as follows: The family belongs to the order Solanales, in the asterid group and class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons). The laminae are generally dorsiventral and lack secretory cavities. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, UK, pp 75–137 Estrada N ( eds ) Solanaceae III – solanaceae lower classifications, chemistry,.... The female part of the plant family Solanaceae the sister clade of the embryo sack can be or. Species Solanum tuberosum has 4 × 12 = 24 chromosomes, while others 26... Great diversity of suboscine birds in the Solanaceae exhibit a large morphological variability, in. And ecology by definition contain seeds ) curved, and biosynthesis the eight most genera... 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